The Phenomenon Wherein Trying To Hide Information Makes It More Public Is Known As The Streisand Effect.
Back in 2002, photographer Kenneth Adelman undertook a massive project wherein he photographed the California coastline in a series of 12,000 photographs. The purpose of the exercise was to document coastal erosion for the California Coastal Records Project, a government-sanctioned project focused on preserving the state’s massive coastline.
In the process Adelman happened to, just by circumstance, photograph the palatial Malibu mansion of one very famous singer, Barbra Streisand. In 2003, when it came to the singer’s attention that her home was displayed on the CCRP’s website, her lawyers drafted a lawsuit and sued the photographer, the site displaying the images (Pictopia.com), and even the server company hosting the actual files (Layer42). The total damages sought were for $50,000,000.
Before the lawsuit, nobody (aside from perhaps some die hard fans) really had any idea about the photo of the house. After the lawsuit, the story was all over the news and shortly after the story broke, nearly half a million people went to the CCRP website for the express purpose of looking at her house. The frivolous lawsuit ended up drawing exponentially more attention to the home than simply ignoring the photograph would have.
Two years later in 2005, Mike Masnick, CEO and founder of the Techdirt blog, immortalized the whole affair when he wrote:
How long is it going to take before lawyers realize that the simple act of trying to repress something they don’t like online is likely to make it so that something that most people would never, ever see (like a photo of a urinal in some random beach resort) is now seen by many more people? Let’s call it the Streisand Effect.
The greatest irony here is that not only did Streisand fail to keep her house under wraps, but she permanently linked her name to the futile attempt to do so.
If you drink coffee in America, there’s a good chance that you drink drip coffee, brewed by dripping boiling water over a basket of ground coffee and then served in a cup ~6-8 ounces in volume. If you drink coffee in Italy, there’s a good chance you drink espresso coffee, brewed by putting very finely ground coffee under extreme pressure and then served in a cup ~2-2.5 ounces in size (a single shot of espresso is ~1-1.5 ounces in volume). The end result is significantly different with the pressurized extraction of the espresso drawing out more oils and different flavors than drip brewing.
While at first glance, it seems like the two coffee preparation styles are so different that never the twain shall meet, there’s a sort of compromise between the two drinks. Because there are many places, like Italian cafes for example, where drip coffee is not kept ready and on hand, hot water will be added to a single or double shot of espresso to dilute it to the strength a drip coffee drinker is used to. The end result is a serving of coffee with the volume and caffeine level the recipient is used to, but with a different and richer flavor profile as a result of the extra coffee oils–as seen in the photo here.
The practice is believed to have originated during World War II when American soldiers would dilute espresso with hot water to make something that more closely resembled the coffee they were used to back home, thus the hybrid coffee became the “Americano”.
In the summer of 1816, the world experienced a significantly cooler summer than expected. The average global temperature that summer dropped 0.7-1.3 degrees Fahrenheit (0.4-0.7 degrees Celsius). When looking at the daily temperature and planning for an outing to the beach, a couple of degrees might not seem like a lot, but over an entire region and for an entire season, a temperature variation that significant can, and did, have catastrophic effects.
A significant portion of the Northern hemisphere, including Western Europe and the Eastern side of North America, like Alberta, Canada and the New England area of the United States, experienced crop failures and food shortages. The situation is best described as an agricultural disaster where sinking summer temperatures decimated crops and triggered what is considered the last great subsistence crisis in the Western world.
Entire segments of the population in Wales were reduced to refugee status, traveling for food. Ireland experienced sweeping crop failures. Germany also experienced severe food shortages. The cold reached well beyond Europe, however, and as far away as China, the cold weather was severe enough to kill trees, crops, and livestock. Changes in ice formation and volume also lead to the destruction of dams and flooding in many locations around the world.
So what caused “The Year Without a Summer” as the cool period was called? For centuries leading up to the event, the Earth had already been cooling, a period starting in the 14th century and dubbed “The Little Ice Age”. This slow cooling had already caused agricultural upset in Europe, but the real trigger for the “Year Without a Summer” was the enormous 1815 eruption of Mount Tambora in the Dutch East Indies. It was the largest volcanic eruption that had occurred in at least 1,300 years and the ejected debris and dust was the trigger for the weather patterns and changes in heat absorption from the sun that caused the sudden global cooling.